Covid-19 e-hub


Covid-19 has had far-reaching consequences for Scotland's public services and finances, and it will continue to have an impact in the future.
This e-hub brings together the Covid-19 related reports we've produced so far, as well as other resources.

Latest from our blog

Covid-19 must mean lasting change for our NHS

The Covid-19 pandemic has resulted in a huge change in our health and care services in a very short time.

The terrible human cost of that first wave is felt strongly by all of us, particularly those of us who lost loved ones. And we know that the impact of the pandemic hasn’t been equally shared and that it’s the most vulnerable people who have suffered the most.

We’ve been monitoring Covid-19’s impact as part of my annual NHS overview work.

The two main things we’re focussed on is how the NHS in Scotland responded to coronavirus and what lessons can be learned, and secondly the financial and operational implications of the pandemic.

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Stephen Boyle

Covid-19 and Scotland’s public finances

Covid-19 has seen around £5.3 billion announced by the Scottish Government to tackle the impact of the pandemic.

Most of that spending has come from Barnett consequentials – extra funding that Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland get if the UK Government decides to spend more in England on things that are devolved, such as health.

So far, the Scottish Government has broadly spent that money in the same way as its UK counterparts. And it’s made a good start on ensuring there’s transparency around how it’s been spent.

Fiona Diggle, Audit Manager

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Actual Government spend to date
  • Business support: 2,195 spend to date. 402 million available to spend.
  • Public services: 1,318 spend to date. 178 million available to spend.
  • Other support for individuals: 27 million available to spend.

Actual Government spend to date against announcements incorporated in the Summer Budget Revision - snapshot at the end of July. Scottish Government data suggests most of the funding in the Summer Budget Revision has been spent.

Fiscal events and Covid-19 timeline

The Scottish and UK governments have had to respond quickly to the emerging pandemic.

The Covid-19 pandemic has been the biggest fiscal and policy challenge facing the Scottish Government over the past two decades of devolution. Expected devolved public spending has increased by around 15 per cent since the 2020/21 Scottish budget was first agreed in February 2020 and is subject to significant and continuing revision. Before the pandemic hit, the budget had faced unusual uncertainty with the UK budget being delayed due to the general election, and remains subject to unprecedented uncertainty, volatility and complexity.

Timeline illustrating key dates in the Covid-19 pandemic


Future Covid-19 audit work

Audit Scotland is committed to helping Parliament and the public understand how public money has been used during this crisis and ensure lessons are learned for the future. The complex and dynamic nature of the Covid-19 crisis means we will need to take a phased approach.


Phase 1 (short term)

  • Briefing the Scottish Parliament on emerging audit risks linked to the public sector response to Covid-19.
  • Considering what this means for our future work programme and the work of the Parliament’s Public Audit and Post Legislative Scrutiny Committee (PAPLS).

Phase 2 (medium term)

  • Developing the work programme to consider the impact of Covid-19 on:
    • specific sectors (eg, NHS, further and higher education, justice, local government)
    • policy commitments (eg, early learning and childcare expansion, addressing child poverty)
    • thematic issues raised by Covid-19 (eg, the impact on Scotland’s public finances, fraud risk management, inequalities).

Phase 3 (longer term)

  • Identifying lessons that can be learnt from the public sector’s response.
  • Assessing the outcomes achieved from key Scottish Government spending and programmes related to Covid-19.
  • Aligning our work programme with the Scottish Government’s work to rebuild Scotland’s economy, remove inequality and advance wellbeing.

Risks and issues for public services emerging from Covid-19

Economic & fiscal

Economy icon

The response to Covid-19 will affect the Scottish economy and its public finances. There may be permanent scarring of some parts of the economy. Increased unemployment seems likely, especially among young people and lower-skilled and in certain sectors: tourism, hospitality, and retail. This may increase demands on the social security system. Any reduction in tax take, relative to the rest of the UK, will increase pressure on Scotland’s public finances.

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Public services

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The response of public services to Covid-19 has been strong but there are questions about the sustainability of some sectors: social care, universities and threats to public service delivery associated with staff burnout, backlogs in many public services (NHS, courts), loss of income. There are pressures on the delivery of outcomes in the national performance framework, eg educational outcomes.

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Equalities icon

Covid-19 has the potential to increase inequalities. The Scottish Government has delayed the introduction of the Scottish Child Payment. There will be a greater economic and employment impact on younger people. There are higher mortality and morbidity cases among the BAME community. Deprived communities have experienced more acute direct (health) and indirect (education) effects.

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Collaborative leadership

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The response to Covid-19 has led to some coordinated and rapid responses across the public services, such as multi-agency helplines, provision of emergency food and essential supplies and support for rough sleepers. It will be critical to sustain collaboration during shift from short-term response to medium-term recovery. In some cases, a lack of collaborative leadership has had serious effects: transfer of infected patients from hospitals to care settings.

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Adaptation & innovation

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The response to Covid-19 has resulted in a rapid shift to remote working for large parts of the public sector, eg the establishment of remote council contact centres. This shift has happened at an unprecedented pace. The challenge will be to retain learning from the experience and enable future change. The response to Covid-19 has demonstrated how quickly the public sector can operates eg the construction of a new hospital in Glasgow.

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Digital icon

The response to Covid-19 has led to a major public sector pivot to more digitally delivered services including school, college and university education, virtual courts, online GP consultations and e-care. While there are genuinely positive aspects to this pivot, it does result in challenges about inequalities of access to digital technology and connectivity with regard to geography and deprivation.

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Community engagement

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There are many examples of strong community support and resilience activity in response to Covid-19. However, the need to make rapid decisions about how to change how public services are delivered may have compromised the amount of community engagement that has taken place. As we shift from response to recovery to renewal, it is imperative that all communities are engaged.

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Governance & accountability

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The response to Covid-19 led to the adjustment to governance systems to enable rapid decision-making. This may have reduced scrutiny, oversight and transparency by non-executives and elected members. The rapid pace of change and changed ways of living and working have increased the risk of error and fraud.

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